Steamboat Illustrations, Page 32


PACIFIC Sidewheel packet Way's Packet Directory Number 4373

Built at New Albany, Indiana 1857

603 tons. 290 x 40 x 8. Engines, 28's- 9 ft. Six boilers, each 40" by 28 ft .

Owned by J. Bragdon & Co., Louisville.

Ran Louisville-New Orleans, Capt. William Lamb.

Other masters were Captains Anson McGill and Jesse K. Bell.

Clerks included W.Y. Halliday and R.A. Barclay.

She was coaling at Uniontown, Kentucky November 18,1860, when she burned with loss of eight lives 268 days after Harper's Weekly published this engraving of the PACIFIC on February 25, 1860.


"VIEW OF ST. BONIFACE" with the Sternwheeler INTERNATIONAL on the Red River of the North from the CANADIAN ILLUSTRATED NEWS 20 July, 1872, page 36 recently added to my collection The photo the INTERNATIONAL at Fort Garry, Manitoba on the Red River is from the La Crosse collection. The engraving from a drawing resembles a cartoon of a toy steamboat compared to the photograph of the same boat.

Excerpted from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Saint Boniface is a ward of Winnipeg southwest of the city of Winnipeg on the Red River of the North in the Province of Manitoba. With the founding of a Roman Catholic mission in 1818, St Boniface began its role in Canadian religious, political and cultural history - as Mother Parish for many French settlements in Western Canada. St Boniface was incorporated as a town in 1883 and as a city in 1908. In 1971, St. Boniface was amalgamated, along with several neighboring communities, into the City of Winnipeg which is the largest city in Manitoba and is the capital of the Province.

A Double-decked sternwheeler
Not listed in Way's Packet Directory

The INTERNATIONAL's machinery and much of its materials came from the FREIGHTER, a Mississippi steamer that had been stuck in Big Stone Lake as a result of an ill-fated attempt to sail it from the Mississippi via the Minnesota River to the Red River in 1860.

The Burbank brothers bought the wreck of the small flat bottomed, square-bowed boat, dismantled it, and transported the salvaged pieces to Georgetown, Wisconsin on the Red River where a new hull was fashioned out of wood cut along the banks of the Red River.

The INTERNATIONAL was specially designed for Red River navigation, but was rather too large to be handled comfortably on the upper reaches of the river.

She was launched in the Spring of 1862.

She was 137 feet long, with a 26 foot beam. She weighed 133 tons. Draught 15 inches light and 27 inches full.

Cost $20,000. Two boilers.


Norman W. Kittson (master, date unknown)
1864-1871: Captain Frank Aymond (master)
1874/1875: Captain John Seger (master), Chris Cook (mate)
1874: Jim Lauderdale and W. Griggs (pilots), D. Barrett (steward), Fred Gurion (engineer), J. Claremont (engineer)
1875: L. Cornick (steward), John Cavenaugh and O. Provencha (pilots)

Crew of 22 deckhands.

The INTERNATIONAL had a narrow escape from disaster when the ice moving downstream in the spring snapped its hawsers, and it was carried down past Georgetown until some obstacle luckily checked its course and it could be secured to the bank again.

Operated on the Red River of the North in 1862 between Georgetown and Fort Garry.

The Red River newspaper, The "Nor'-Wester" described the INTERNATIONAL's first triumphant arrival at Fort Garry on May 26, 1862: "She is really a grand affair. Her size and finish would make her respectable even amid the finest floating palaces of the Mississippi."

The Sioux uprising of 1863 prevented her from running. Low water prevented her operation on the Red until 1870. In that year she made several trips.

In February 5, 1864 the Hudson's Bay Company bought the INTERNATIONAL to transport the company's goods from Georgetown to Fort Garry.

Ownership was transferred to the Red River Transportation Company 1871-72.

Carried freight and passengers, including the first group of Mennonite settlers in 1874 and the first Icelanders in 1875.

In 1876, according to a contemporary newspaper report, Minnesota sent goods to the value of $802,400.00 into Manitoba, and forwarded over five million pounds of bonded goods via the Red River Transportation Company's steamboats.

Manitoba sent to Minnesota goods, chiefly furs, valued at $794,868.00.

The garrison from Pembina paid a good-will visit to Winnipeg in 1877, arriving on the INTERNATIONAL.

The completion of the railway connection from St. Boniface to the American roads in 1878 virtually ended the rule of the steamboats on the Red River including the INTERNATIONAL, although they did not disappear from the river immediately.

The INTERNATIONAL was dismantled at Grand Forks, North Dakota in 1880.

Source material:

McCarthy, Martha. 1987 report for the Manitoba Historic Resources Branch, Steamboats on the Rivers and Lakes of Manitoba 1859-96 gov.mb.ca

Marion H. Herriot. "Steamboating on the Red River" & "Steamboat Transportation on the Red River" Minnesota History, Vol. 21 (September, 1940) ubcatlas.files.wordpress.com

Steamboats On The Red: A documentary that was televised and website dedicated to it was funded by the North Dakota Humanities Council, the Minnesota Arts & Culture Heritage Fund, The Winnipeg Foundation, and by the members of Prairie Public.


GEORGETOWN STEAMBOATS georgetownsteamboats.com

Red River 1859-1869 Through the Eyes of a Nor'Wester ubcatlas.files.wordpress.com


Attached scan of artist Cinczia (Italian for Cynthia) Ghigliano's illustration of two sentences for an Italian edition of Mark Twain's novel PUDD'NHEAD WILSON. . . translated to WILSON IL PICCHIATELLO "Crackpot Wilson". . . published by Emme Edizione in 1991. The steamboat may have been based on the JULIA BELLE SWAIN. Cin'z skipped over the part about Chambers being naked and added a little girl in a diaphanous chemise upper right.

Tom always made Chambers go in swimming with him, and stay by him as a protection. When Tom had had enough, he would slip out and tie knots in Chamber's shirt, dip the knots in the water and make them hard to undo, then dress himself and sit by and laugh while the naked shiverer tugged at the stubborn knots with his teeth.

Pudd'nhead Wilson is a novel by Mark Twain. It was serialized in The Century Magazine (1893-4), before being published as a novel in 1894. wikipedia.org

Roxana is a slave, originally owned by Percy Driscoll and freed upon his death. Roxy is only one sixteenth black, and with her fair complexion, brown eyes and straight brown hair, could easily pass for white based on appearance alone. However, due to societal conventions, she is considered black, and she herself considers herself black, speaking the dialect of slaves in the antebellum South. She is the mother of Valet de Chambre and acts as nanny to Thomas Driscoll. Due to her son's light skin and Percy Driscoll's inattention as father, she is able to switch the children's identities as infants, thus guaranteeing an upper-class upbringing for her own son.

Thomas "Tom" Driscoll
Thomas à Becket Driscoll is the son of Percy Driscoll.
Tom is switched with Roxy's baby Chambers when he is only a few months old, and is called "Chambers" from then on. Chambers is raised as a slave and is purchased by Judge Driscoll, childless and sad, when the judge's brother Percy dies, to prevent "Tom" from selling him "down the river". Chambers is a decent young man who is often forced to fight bullies for Tom. He is kind and always respectful towards Tom but receives brutal hate from his master. Raised as a black man, he speaks in the black dialect spoken during slavery.


Valet de Chambre is Roxy's son. Chambers is one thirty second black, and as Roxy's son, was born into slavery.

At a young age he is switched by his mother with Thomas à Becket Driscoll, a white child of similar age born into an aristocratic family in the small town.

From then on he is known as "Tom", and is raised as the white heir to a large estate. Tom, the focus of the novel, is spoiled, cruel and wicked.

In his early years he has an intense hate for Chambers even though Chambers protected Tom and saved his life on numerous occasions.

Tom's feelings and attitude portray him as the embodiment of human folly.

His weakness for gambling leads him into debt, and his uncle (and adoptive father) Judge Driscoll, frequently disinherits him, only to rewrite his will yet again.

David "Pudd'nhead" Wilson

Wilson is a lawyer who came to Dawson's Landing to practice law, only to find himself unable to set up a profitable law practice due to the townsfolk's low opinion of his intelligence and common sense.

He nevertheless settles down to a comfortable life in the town, acting as a bookkeeper and pursuing his hobby of collecting fingerprints.

Although the title character, he remains in the background of the novel until he becomes prominent in the final chapters.


Advertisement from the Saturday Evening Post May 31st 1958 page 79

The following is featured on SAMUEL L. CLEMENS' STEAMBOAT CAREER

by Barbara Schmidt and Dave Thomson
on twainquotes.com twainquotes.com (1)
twainquotes.com (2)

When a pilot "calls for the lead" he gives the command with a signal from the whistle or bell. Soundings are taken from either side of the boat, and when necessary from both sides. One signal from the pilot house sends a leadsman to the starboard (right) side, two signals to the larboard (left or "port" side).

The same signals from the pilothouse recall the leadsman from his post.

Soundings are taken at the discretion of the pilot, when making a crossing, going through seldom used chutes, or at any time when there is doubt regarding the depth of the water. When a leadsman is at work the pilot expects to be informed of the depth of the channel about every hundred feet.

Throughout the leadsman's chanting, pilots listen hopefully for "No Bottom." To them this is the leadsman's sweetest song.

When a boat can be kept in deep water the danger of going aground is avoided.

From "Steamboatin' Days - Folks Songs of the River Packet Era" by Mary Wheeler. Louisiana State University Press, 1944.


The soundings as "sung out" by the "Leadsman":

"Quarter Less Twain" - ten and one-half feet

"Mark Twain" - twelve feet (two fathoms)

"Quarter Twain" - thirteen and one-half feet

"Half Twain" - fifteen feet

"Quarter Less Three" - sixteen and one-half feet

"Mark Three" - eighteen feet (three fathoms)

"Quarter Three" - nineteen and one-half feet

"Half Three" - twenty-one feet

"Quarter Less Four" - twenty-two and one-half feet

"Mark Four" (or "Deep Four") - twenty-four feet (four fathoms)

"No Bottom" - over twenty-four feet


This Italian edition of Mark Twain's HUCK FINN is copyrighted 1956 and '89. The "fine art" style color illustrations inside the book by Antonio Canilli were painted in a totally different style than the cover which is whimsical and "cartoony" of two sternwheelers and the one "wedding cake" sidewheeler which an unknown artist may have been inspired to paint that way from a quotation which has been attributed to Mark Twain himself: "A steamboat was as beautiful as a wedding cake without the complications."

The cover artist's name is cut off in the lower right corner and I can just barely make out the first two letters in their first name as "PA" and the first letter in the last name as "T." Maybe someday their identity will come to light.

This book took at least a month to get here from Italy, it may have traveled via a merchant marine vessel that stopped in many ports o'call before pulling into Los Angeles harbor. I was beginning to have my doubts that it would ever show up.


Attached photo of the title character in TOM SAWYER on stage in front of the set which includes an enlarged facsimile of the 1848 panorama of Hannibal, MO (from sketches by Henry Lewis) made by Ed Garbert and me in the center of the set piece. Scenic Designer Cliff Simon found our panorama on Professor Steve Railton's Mark Twain site. Since Hannibal was the model for "St. Petersburg" in Twain's novels, it fit the bill. A young artist who is a freshman at U of A Birmingham painted the mural on a 14 foot wide backdrop.


THEATRE in the Alys Stephens Center
1200 10th Avenue South
Birmingham AL 35294-1263

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer

UAB College
Based on the Book by Mark Twain
Adapted by Lee Eric Shackleford
Tour 2006-2007

Cliff Simon


This stage version of SHOW BOAT debuted late last year at the Crucible Theatre in Sheffield, England.

The trailer on YouTube demonstrates that this version was imaginative and "Hell for Leather" in style. Much more adventurous than the versions I've seen here in the U.S. The choreography resembles the calisthenics we all did in gym class.

Notice that the steamboat graphic on the stage curtain at the bottom of the picture is the same one we have in 3rd position on ILLUSTRATIONS 26 that I described as looking like it was done in pen and ink by the French illustrator Gustave Doré Scroll down to the bottom of this page to see that image and the caption I wrote. I located the graphic on the La Crosse site. It is possible that the art director for the Sheffield SHOW BOAT saw that "Doré" style graphic on steamboats.com and decided it would be perfect for the "wild and crazy" production that the Brits put on last year. Wish they'd bring that production to the U.S.

youtube.com Show Boat trailer
youtube.com The Making of Show Boat

Sheffield Theatres

Published on Dec 23, 2015

See the critically acclaimed Show Boat at the Crucible Theatre, Sheffield until Saturday 23 January.

To book go to sheffieldtheatres.co.uk or call the Box Office on 0114 249 6000.

Theatre review



Show Boat, Sheffield Crucible, review: 'something special'

Claire Allfree

17 DECEMBER 2015 • 12:16PM

Oh, how Sheffield Theatres will miss Daniel Evans. The outgoing artistic director, recently announced as the new head of Chichester Festival Theatre, has an assured reputation for copper-bottomed productions of classic musicals. But this revival of Jerome Kern and Oscar Hammerstein's lesser performed 1927 work is, even by his standards, something special.

It was a radical piece for its time. Based on Edna Ferber's novel about the tumultuous lives of a group of performers aboard the Mississippi show boat Cotton Blossom, it combines a panoramic snapshot of a changing America with detailed close-ups of personal hardship.

Spanning several decades from the late 1800s, it tackles racism, alcoholism, women's rights, gambling and the dawn of modernity. These were rare subjects back then for musical theatre, and in that great American musical tradition, Show Boat effortlessly views them through the telescoping lens of show business itself.

Kern's score is sublime, a groundbreaking mix of high opera and popular show tunes. Under the direction here of musical supervisor David White, every sound is lush, sonorous and extravagantly beautiful. Indeed, Show Boat is waterlogged with feeling.

Lez Brotherston's set, which combines wooden board walks with the light-bedecked bow of the Cotton Blossom, provides a clean backdrop to some richly explored performances. Racial tension simmers everywhere, from the bitter chorus of opening song, Cotton Blossom - "coloured folks work while white folks play" - to use of the N-word by a belligerent white man as he manhandles the sweating black stevedores. Most powerfully of all, Emmanuel Kojo's Joe, one of the black shiphands, lends Show Boat's most famous song, Ol' Man River, a magnificent note of plangent fatalism. It is a note that, through the song's repeated refrain, throbs throughout the show like a sorrowful heartbeat.

The singing is exquisite. Rebecca Trehearn's Julie, forced to end her career on the Cotton Blossom when it's revealed that she is half negro and thus guilty of inter racial marriage, lends a gorgeously deep, oaky quality to the musical's second big musical moment, Can't Help Lovin' Dat Man.

Gina Beck's Magnolia, who marries Michael Xavier's dashing but tormented Gaylord only to be abandoned by him years later in Chicago because of his gambling debts, and who transforms from pink cheeked innocent to powerfully assured grown woman, brings the house down with After The Ball. Sandra Marvin's Queenie, meanwhile, sings Mis'ry's Comin' Aroun' as though she possesses a sadness as old and deep as the river itself. Hammerstein's songs are mainly concerned with the subject of love but almost every note here articulates a deeper emotional subtext of regret and yearning, and as the show progresses, a terrible awareness of time passing.

There's some terrific character work from Allan Corduner as Captain Hawks who affectionately squabbles with his hatchet-faced wife Parthy, while Danny Collins and Alex Young inject plenty of wit as a couple of ghastly show biz wannabes.

Alistair David's slick choreography is beautifully deployed, too, no less so than during a racially charged dance "stand off" aboard the Cotton Blossom. Evans marshals what can become a rather choppy plot with fast, dream -like fluidity, ripping through the passing years in the second half with evocative use of projected newspaper headlines and finding in the show's final scenes a heart-aching note of redemption.

This is a terrific production, full of seamlessly integrated colour and detail. It is the kind of show that leaves you feeling choked, shivery and on an absolute high.

Until Jan 23. Tickets: 0114 249 6000; sheffieldtheatres.co.uk


Attached scan of Don Davey's pencil sketch/drawing of the "modern" NATCHEZ steamboat which Doc Hawley was Captain of for quite a while.

Don Davey began his distinguished career at the American Academy of Art in Chicago and the warmth and vitality of his drawings have won constant praise and recognition.

His illustrations have lent sparkle to such magazines as McCalls, Saturday Evening Post and Fortune.

While residing on the west coast he served on the faculty of the American Academy of Art in San Francisco and was instrumental in the formation of the Society of Illustrators which he served as president.

On invitation of the United States Air Force, he toured the Orient in return for his subsequent painting presently on world tour and part of the permanent collection of the United States Air Force documentary art program.

An award winning artist with both gold and silver medals to his credit, Mr. Davey's technique, at once factual and impressionistic, has won him a following the world over.

The popularity of his work is best acknowledged by the public's acquisition of well over one million lithographs by collectors both here and abroad.

A resident of New Orleans for seven years, he remains an avid and enthusiastic traveler. Recently returned from a painting trip of Europe and Polynesia, Mr. Davey is constantly in search of new subject matter unique to the area he is exploring.

His beautiful and impressive collection of treasured landmarks presently includes Chicago's Old Town, California's Monterey Peninsula, San Francisco, Louisiana plantation homes, New Orleans and Hawaii.

If your favorite store cannot supply you, write Colony Publishing Inc., 615 Montgomery, San Francisco, California 94111.

Statement by the artist:

"My purpose as an artist is to communicate my own visual and emotional response to the old world atmosphere of this historic city, to share with the viewer my own intimate impressions, and to see through the inner eye of the artist the tranquil beauty of the stately St. Louis Cathedral, the sun casting fragile shadows on wrought iron lacework, the sculptured textures of weathered old buildings and courtyards, and to awaken visual memories of your visit so that the past, momentarily reborn, becomes the present."


Attached engraved illustration from a January, 1882 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN article about an innovation to enhance the performance of paddlewheels on steamboats that plied American rivers. Looks like a steampunker's phantasy.

It would be interesting to know how many, if any, paddlewheelers were customized to use this invention. I don't recall seeing any photographs in which such a device could be plainly seen on a sternwheeler. In the case of sidewheelers the devices would not be visible from outside the boat. The inventor Robert L. Stevens was a resident of Albany, Oregon on the Willamette River where steamboat commerce was thriving during the 1880's. A steamboat that navigated the Willamette River would have been the most likely candidate to have installed a prototype of this innovation in order to give it a trial run.

Page 50 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 28 January 1882

Text of the article:


Every boatman knows that the angle and depth at which the wheels of steamers strike the water affect vary greatly their speed and power of propulsion, involving as a consequence the questions of time and consumption of fuel. The loading and unloading of a vessel alter the dip of the paddle; the heavier the load the greater the dip and angle, destroying the effective power of the engine. To remedy this difficulty many devices have been planned, the best of which are only partially effective, all more or less complicated, and the additional machinery being very liable to get out of order. The most common plan for side-wheel boats is the feathering wheel, which makes each paddle strike the water at right angles, but when deep in the water the power is applied at a great disadvantage, and too much of the wheel submerged for effective use.

A wheel large in proportion to the size of the boat and capacity is generally accepted as a solution of the difficulty; the vessel being constructed so that the load will not sink her below a line of effective working power. In sternwheel boats the load is mainly carried on the bow, so that they do not run on an even keel, and the resistance of the water through which they plow their way is greatly increased. Other craft of this kind raise and lower the wheels by several devices not applicable to large and powerful boats.

Mr. Robert L. Stevens, of Albany, Oregon, has recently Patented a device which raises and lowers the wheels of either side on sternwheel boats, so that whether the vessel be loaded or unloaded the paddle will strike at the most effective angle and depth, securing the greatest speed with a minimum of power, while the driving engines are not interfered with. This is effected by a series of screw shafts arranged for simultaneous movement by the driving engine, and they do not detract from the strength of the wheel or boat. The arrangement is not complicated, and adds but comparatively little to the weight.

The advantages of this improvement are many. The wheels and engines of large boats can be made smaller and driven faster, economizing weight and fuel, the destructive jar of an overloaded boat and its powerful engine obviated, increasing the durability of both. They can be deeply loaded without changing the paddles to a smaller diameter, as is often done on the Mississippi. They can be built deeper and longer, doubling or tripling their capacity in deep rivers. With light loads they can run up the shallow rivers at full speed, and thus avoid expensive transfers of freight, and their draught only limited by the depth of the rivers in which they ply. For example, a vessel drawing twelve feet of water when loaded with 1,000 tons, could start from New Orleans, leave portions of her freight at the great centers of commerce, and with a light load left, say 150 tons, and drawing three and a half feet or less, mount the swift and shallow tributaries of the Mississippi, carrying freight directly to its destination instead of transferring it to a steamer of lighter draught.

The paddle wheel and its shaft are supported at the stern of the vessel, as shown in the engraving, by boxes which are formed with side flanges entering grooves formed in fixed posts, so that the boxes are free to be raised and lowered. Screw shafts, supported at the top and bottom, pass through the internally threaded flanges of the boxes, so that the boxes with the wheel and shaft are sustained by the screws. On the lower ends of the screws, at each side, there are bevel gear-wheels meshing with similar gears on shafts that are fitted longitudinally of the vessel at each side.

The cylinders are hung for oscillation on trunnions, and the slides are connected to the cylinders so as to retain their proper relative position. A screw is fitted in connection with a. nut on each. slide. for swinging the slide and cylinder and sustaining them. All of the screws are connected for simultaneous operation. The movement being in an arc from the trunnions, the screws and bevel gearing are proportioned to obtain the variation in movement. To allow vertical movement of the boxes the piston and eccentric rods are fitted with right and left hand screw turn buckles, so that the rods can be lengthened and shortened. The invention can be applied in connection with side paddlewheels and beam engines by changing the relative position of the parts.


SOLDIERS CLEARING A WAY THROUGH THU SWAMPS FOR A TRANSPORT. - From A SKETCH by H. Lovie. Island No.10 is in latitude. 36.30, where the Mississippi makes its great double curve. It was heavily fortified and protected by swamps on the east, and the batteries of New Madrid, Mo., was thought to command the river. New Madrid was captured by Pope's army (March, 1862), Foote's gunboats succeeded in running past the island, some transports forced their way through the swamps behind the island, and the cutting of a canal across the bend, enabled the Federals to surround and capture its garrison (April 7) without a serious battle. As published in THE CIVIL WAR IN THE UNITED STATES on page 92


Way's Packet Directory Number 5623
Sternwheel packet boat
Built at Belle Vernon, Pennyslyvania in 1856.
175 tons.

Ran Paducah-Eastport on Tennessee River prior to the Civil War Seized at Paducah on August 21, 1861, by U.S. gunboat LEXINGTON for engaging in traffic with the enemy and for flying the Confederate flag. Towed to Cairo, Illinois. Burned at Duck River, Tennessee on Sept. 3, 1862.


This painting is of the ROB'T E. LEE, by Louisiana artist August Norieri. An enlargement of this painting serves as the backdrop for Jim Waddell's Mark Twain performances at MARK TWAIN CAVE in Hannibal, MO (see the photo below of Jim performing for grade school students).


August Norieri 1860-1898

The following information courtesy of Neal Auction Company:

The inspired career of August Norieri was tragically ended by his untimely death in 1898 at the age of thirty-eight. Norieri's paintings reflect his fascination with the waterways of New Orleans and the variety of boats that traversed them.

The picturesque steamboats along with the hard working tugboats of the Mississippi River, the sailing boats on Lake Ponchartrain and the steam launch pleasure boats on Bayou St. John all attracted the interest of the artist.

Norieri studied painting with local artist Andre Molinary, participated in the Creole Exhibit of the American Exposition of 1885 and was an active member of the Art Association of New Orleans.

Born into a middle class New Orleans Italian-American family, Norieri's brother Baptiste became a tugboat captain and bar pilot.


An image gallery containing thumbnail images of Norieri's steamboat paintings can be seen here:


Jim Waddell giving his orientation talk to school kids who were bussed over to Mark Twain Cave for a Tour. The mural behind him is an enlargement of a super high resolution Library of Congress file of a steamboat painting (seen above, by August Norieri) that lends itself well to the environment of this room where the tourists of all ages get an introductory talk prior to going on the tour of the Cave. For more Jim Waddell, click here.


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